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Commercial Compliance: SAR and Radiation Hazards

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SAR and Radiation Hazards

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Commercial Compliance: SAR and Radiation Hazards (Module)

This Course is from a multi-part series. Below is a description of the complete series. Each of the following parts/sessions can be purchased separately at http://wll.coggno.com/shop:


Part I: FCC Part 15 Essentials. Presented by Michael Violette, Washington Laboratories
Part II: SAR and Radiation Hazards. Presented by Jay Moulton, RF Exposure Laboratories
Part III: Broadband Wireless Devices. Presented by Michael F Young, YDI Wireless
Part IV: Wireless Approvals in the Far East. Presented by Michael Violette, Washington Laboratories
Time to market is essential for survival. The intense pressure of globalization, especially in the electronics industry, pushes the need to introduce new product designs as quickly as possible. Shelf life in the electronics industry is not much longer than the lifespan of a fruit fly.


This four-part series of webinars looks at key compliance requirements for electronic devices and popular wireless technologies. Instruction is aimed at consumer and commercial product developers in the ITE, communications, energy, industrial and robotics industries.

Part I: FCC Part 15 Essentials The series will commence with a fundamentals-based training in Federal Communication Commission (FCC) Rules that govern electronic devices. The Commission’s Rules, originally crafted to serve broadcasters (largely) evolved quickly as radio technologies became common and ubiquitous. With the advent of the personal computer and low power wireless devices, the Rules evolved ever more. This section of the FCC Rules covers practically every electronic device sold in the United States. Compliance with Part 15 is essential to be able to sell and market digital and wireless devices.
These Rules embody the bulk of Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) requirements for consumer and commercial equipment in the United States. The Rules, now thirty years on, covered so-called “unlicensed” operation and have evolved tremendously as the technologies have changed over time.
This one hour webinar will include a review of the role of the FCC Rules as well as cover application of the Rules to specific devices. In Part One, we will discuss the following:

  • Product Certification
  • Approvals Necessary
  • Digital Device Rules
  • Application of FCC Part 15 and Exemptions
  • Digital Transmission Systems
  • UNII and Ultra Wideband Communications
  • Low Power devices for command and telemetry
  • WiFi, Zigbee, Bluetooth and related applications
  • Testing and Reporting Requirements

Part II: SAR and Radiation Hazards we will explore the requirements for the protection of human health and safety from radio frequency energy. The original requirements for protection of persons from radio frequency energy grew out of research conducted in the 1950s and 1960s, as radio services expanded. The original requirements, in the US, were promulgated under ANSI C95.1, which was originally issued in 1974. Since then, volumes of studies, measurements, reports and discussion have swirled around the issues of the safety of radio frequency fields. Radio products must comply with radiation exposure requirements to limit the impact of RF energy on human health. The requirements for devices depends largely on the output power and the use of the device. The limits for “safe exposure” are slightly different across different approvals regimens, but the FCC limits are considered to be the most stringent in the world. The FCC mandates the “routine environmental evaluation” be performed for all radio frequency transmitters. The devil, as they say, is in the details. Many challenges exist when measuring these quantities. The assessment depends on the distance of the radio transmitter from the human body, whether it be the head, hands or torso. Different techniques are used, and different limits apply. Other international organizations develop assessment methods and limits, notably the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), which has been working since 1992 to assess the health aspects of non-ionizing radiation (as opposed to the ionizing kind—alpha, beta, gamma and X-rays).
Several elements of health effects on humans are explored in this webinar. Concepts related to the measurement and quantification of RF energy will be discussed, including:

  • Evolution of the Exposure Requirements
  • Maximum Permissible Exposure (MPE)
  • Specific Absorption Rate (SAR)
  • Human Body Models
  • Sampling techniques
  • Summation and multiple-emitter quantification
  • Evolution of RF Safety Standards
  • New measurement technologies

Part III: Broadband Wireless Devices. According to the 802.16-2004 WiMAX standard, broadband means “having instantaneous bandwidths greater than 1 MHz and supporting data rates greater than 1.5 Mbit/s. This seminar explores the technologies that have proliferated after the introduction of IEEE 802.xx series of specifications. There is a wide range of systems available spanning from 900 MHz through 72 GHz. Discussion will present an overview current Wi-Fi devices, as well as other the license-free bands and equipment that operates in these bands. We will also explore the TV White Spaces and introduce the brand new Citizens Broadband Radio Service. According to the 802.16-2004 WiMAX standard, broadband means “having instantaneous bandwidths greater than 1 MHz and supporting data rates greater than 1.5 Mbit/s. This seminar explores the technologies that have proliferated after the introduction of IEEE 802.xx series of specifications. There is a wide range of systems available spanning from 900 MHz through 72 GHz. Discussion will present an overview current Wi-Fi devices, as well as other the license-free bands and equipment that operates in these bands. We will also explore the TV White Spaces and introduce the brand new Citizens Broadband Radio Service.
The following topics will be addressed:

  • Definition of “broadband wireless”
  • Types Broadband wireless systems (non-gov’t, non-military)
  • Overview of Wi-Fi specs
  • ISM band devices – not WiFi
  • License-free mm Wave devices
  • The New Citizens Broadband Radio Service (CBRS)
  • Overview of White Spaces on UHF


Part IV: Wireless Approvals in the Far East will explore methods to introduce products into those large economies. Notably, we will explore the regulatory regimes in China, Taiwan, Japan, Korea and Oceania, where nearly one-half the population of the world resides. Access to two billion people has to count for something and as the world globalizes, it standardizes, too. With the adoption of standards, such as those presented in Part III of this series, a device can be designed for multiple markets. With the 2.4GHz band being the most common frequency range used, product developers can integrate wireless functionality with ease.
Nowhere is that greater than the Far East where countries like China, Japan, Taiwan, Korea, the Philippines and much of the ASEAN countries (Association of SE Asian Nations) have deployed wireless access for communications and other purposes.
To gain access, though, it is necessary to understand the regulatory regimes. This webinar will present strategies for access to the following countries:

  • China and the SRRC
  • Japan and the MIC
  • Korea and the KCC
  • Taiwan and the
  • Access to ASEAN
  • Australia and New Zealand and the RCM


The Presenters


Michael Violette, President of Washington Laboratories. Mike has twenty five years of experience in FCC, CE, IC testing and certification. Mike is a professional engineer, and an iNARTE Certified EMC Engineer. He currently is on the Board of Directors of ACIL and RABQSA. He has presented numerous live and webinar events on technical, measurement and regulatory requirements for electronic devices. Mike is a Notified Body for the Radio and Telecommunications Terminal Equipment Directive (RTTED) and EMC Directive. In addition to his own insight, he will bring guest presenters into the webinar series to add subject matter insight and expertise.


Jay Moulton is Vice President and Chief Technical Officer at RF Exposure Labs. Jay has been making SAR measurements since the inception of requirements for radio frequency requirements for portable devices. He is active on industry groups and consults with manufacturers and designers on the essence of SAR compliances. Jay’s expertise in RF exposure requirements and compliance includes highly complex multiple radio configurations and operational modes for mobile phones, tablets, push-to-talk radios, WiFI “Hotspots” and related RF equipment.
Michael Young was the Founder, President and Chief Technical Officer of YDI Wireless, a publicly traded company that designed and manufactured broadband wireless data communication equipment and systems. He designed and his company manufactured a complete range of wireless data communication products and accessories. His company was a world leader in providing extended range, license-free wireless data equipment that included Wi-Fi as well as turnkey long-distance wireless systems for
applications such as wireless Internet, wireless video, wireless LANs, WANs and MANs. He left the company in 2004 and started his own small engineering company, Young Consulting Services. He also went back to teaching college as an Adjunct Professor at George Mason University where he created their new Wireless Communication and Networking Course as well as being a Faculty Supervisor for the ECE Senior Engineering Design Capstone Program. Recently move to Florida, he is set to bring that wireless course to the University Of Central Florida in Orlando.



Attachments

Overview and Objectives

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Washington Labs Academy – Engineering Training